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Posts Tagged ‘vsphere’

vsphere esxi tips

July 1st, 2013 No comments
vicfg-<esxcfg- deprecated> and other vCLI commands, include ESXCLI<from the server with vCLI package installed OR from the vMA virtual machine OR through vcenter server<-vihost parameter>>
esxcli<better use vCLI or PowerCLI instead. directly from esxi shell<console> OR from the server with vCLI package installed OR from the vMA virtual machine OR from vsphere PowerCLI prompt by using Get-EsxCli> OR through vcenter server<-vihost parameter>
localcli <localcli commands are equivalent to ESXCLI commands, but bypass hostd. The localcli commands are only for situations when hostd is unavailable and cannot be restarted. After you run a localcli command, you must restart hostd. Run ESXCLI commands after the restart. If you use a localcli command in other situations, an inconsistent system state and potential failure can result.>
PowerCLI cmdlets<windows powershell>
Some examples:
vicfg-hostops <conn_options> –operation shutdown –force
vicfg-hostops <conn_options> –operation shutdown –cluster <my_cluster>
vmware-cmd –config esxhome.cfg -l
vmware-cmd –config esxhome.cfg ‘/vmfs/volumes/505f5efb-38f8b83f-e1ce-1c6f65d2477b/OracleLinux/OracleLinux.vmx’ getuptime
esxcli [options] {namespace}+ {cmd} [cmd options]
esxcli –config esxhome.cfg network ip interface list
esxcli –config esxhome.cfg fcoe adapter list
esxcli –config esxhome.cfg storage nfs add -H <hostname> -s <sharepoint> -v <volumename>
esxcli –config esxhome.cfg –formatter=csv network ip interface list
esxcli –config esxhome.cfg –reason <reason> system shutdown poweroff <must be in maintenance mode>
esxcli –config esxhome.cfg –reason <reason> system shutdown reboot
esxcli <conn_options> system maintenanceMode set –enable true
Categories: Clouding, tips, VMware Cloud Tags: ,

configure linux as a router firewall through iptables NAT

June 25th, 2013 No comments
  • On the linux box that will act as router:

1.Turn on ip_forward:

vi /etc/sysctl.conf

net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1

sysctl -p

2.Edit /etc/sysconfig/iptables:

*nat
:PREROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
:POSTROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
:OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
-A POSTROUTING -o eth1 -j MASQUERADE #eth1 is the NIC connecting to outside network

#-A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.8.0/255.255.248.0 -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE  #allow 192.168.8.0/21 to do NAT
COMMIT

*filter
:INPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
:FORWARD ACCEPT [0:0]
:OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
COMMIT

3.Reload iptables:

[root@Router ~]# service iptables restart
Flushing firewall rules: [ OK ]
Setting chains to policy ACCEPT: filter nat [ OK ]
Unloading iptables modules: [ OK ]
Applying iptables firewall rules: [ OK ]
Loading additional iptables modules: ip_conntrack_netbios_n[ OK ]

[root@Router ~]# iptables -t nat -nL
Chain PREROUTING (policy ACCEPT)
target prot opt source destination

Chain POSTROUTING (policy ACCEPT)
target prot opt source destination
MASQUERADE all — 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target prot opt source destination
[root@Router ~]# iptables -t filter -nL
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target prot opt source destination

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target prot opt source destination

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target prot opt source destination

On the linux box that will act as client:

1.Set default gateway to the ip address of linux router:

vi /etc/sysconfig/network

GATEWAY=192.168.6.1 #this is ip address of the linux router

2.restart network

Test

On router, the default gateway is:

0.0.0.0         10.124.184.1    0.0.0.0         UG        0 0          0 eth1

And on the linux client, we’ll now be able to connect to outside network too:

[root@client ~]# ping 10.244.29.184
PING 10.244.29.184 (10.244.29.184) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 10.244.29.184: icmp_seq=1 ttl=254 time=0.236 ms

PS:

  1. You can also make linux as firewall using NAT/iptables, more on this article: http://xinn.org/iptables-nat.html
  2. About the numbers in brackets, you can refer to the following: https://www.linuxquestions.org/questions/linux-networking-3/those-%5B-damn-brackets-%5D-in-iptables-must-be-there-for-a-reason-619556/
  3. You should turn on promiscuous mode before applying the configs in this article. If you’re using Vsphere Esxi, this is the step:

promiscuous

enable vm virtualization support in esxi

June 24th, 2013 No comments

If you want to enable your newly created VM’s virtualization support, you can follow these steps:

  1. In Vm setting -> Options -> CPU/MMU Virtualization, select either the third for forth checkbox:enable_virtualization
  2. Go to esxi console, locate your VM’s vmx configuration file(under /vmfs/volumes/Datastore/Nimbula_Node05 in my case), and add a line:

vhv.enable = TRUE

After these steps, your vm should now support nested virtualization. You can run egrep ‘(vmx|svm)’ –color=always /proc/cpuinfo to confirm whether virtualization is enabled or not now.

Categories: Clouding, VMware Cloud Tags: ,

vmware vsphere esx cloud computing terminology

June 25th, 2012 No comments

Here’s some terminologies related to vmware vsphere/esx:

Relationships Between the Component Layers of VMware vSphere

What is a datastore?

A datastore is a logical container that holds virtual machine files and other files necessary for virtual machine operations. Datastores can exist on different types of physical storage, including local storage, iSCSI, Fibre Channel SAN, or NFS. A datastore can be VMFS-based or NFS-based.

You can create a new datastore by formatting LUNs or by mounting NFS volumes to an existing host. In addition, you can add a host with existing datastores to the inventory.

What is a datacenter?

A datacenter is the primary container of inventory objects such as hosts and virtual machines. From the datacenter, you can add and organize inventory objects. Typically, you add hosts, folders, and clusters to a datacenter.

vCenter Server can contain multiple datacenters. Large companies might use multiple datacenters to represent organizational units in their enterprise.

Inventory objects can interact within datacenters, but interaction across datacenters is limited. For example, you can move a virtual machine with vMotion technology across hosts within a datacenter but not to a host in another datacenter.

 What is a Folder?

A folder is a container used to group objects and organize them into hierarchies. Folders provide a natural structure upon which to apply permissions.

The folder structure you see in the inventory varies depending on the inventory view.

 What is a host?

A host is a computer that uses virtualization software, such as ESX or ESXi, to run virtual machines. Hosts provide the CPU and memory resources that virtual machines use and give virtual machines access to storage and network connectivity.

What is a host profile?

A host profile captures the configuration of a specific host and allows you to duplicate the configuration to other hosts or clusters or to validate that a host’s configuration meets datacenter needs. Host profilers help reduce manual steps in cluster host configuration.

You can attach and apply host profiles to hosts or clusters in this view or in the Hosts and Clusters view. When you perform host profile operations in the Hosts and Clusters view, you can right-click individual hosts or clusters in the inventory for some operations or use the Profile Compliance tab for cluster-level host profile operations when a cluster is selected.

What is a Template?

A template is a master image of a virtual machine that can be used to create new virtual machines. This image typically includes an operating system, applications, and configuration settings for the virtual machine.

Use templates to create virtual machines by deploying the template as a virtual machine. When complete, the new virtual machine is added to the folder that was selected when the template was deployed. You can use a template to create identical new virtual machines.

What is a Virtual Machine?

A virtual machine is a software computer that, like a physical computer, runs an operating system and applications. An operating system installed on a virtual machine is called a guest operating system.

Because every virtual machine is an isolated computing environment, you can use virtual machines as desktop or workstation environments, as testing environments, or to consolidate server applications.

In vCenter Server, virtual machines run on hosts or clusters. The same host can run many virtual machines.

What is a Resource Pool?

Resource pools can be used to hierarchically partition available CPU and memory resources of a standalone host or a cluster.

Creating multiple resource pools allows you to think more about aggregate computing capacity and less about individual hosts. In addition, you do not need to set resources on each virtual machine. Instead, you can control the aggregate allocation of resources to the set of virtual machines by changing settings on their enclosing resource pool.

What is a Cluster?

A cluster is a group of hosts. When you add a host to a cluster, the host’s resources become part of the cluster’s resources. The cluster manages the resources of all hosts within it.

Clusters enable the VMware High Availability(HA) and VMware Distributed Resource Scheduler(DRS) solutions.

What is the Hosts & Clusters view?

This view displays the set of computing resources that run on a particular host, cluster, or resource pool. Using the Hosts & Clusters view, you can manage and organize your inventory of computing resources.

What is the Virtual Machines & Templates View?

This view displays all virtual machines and templates in the inventory, arranged by datacenter. Through this view you can organize virtual machines into folder hierarchies.

What is the Datastores view?

This view displays all datastores in the inventory, arranged by datacenter. Through this view, you can organize datastores into folder hierarchies, manage existing datastores, and add and remove datastores to your inventory.

What is the Networks view?

This view displays the set of networking objects available on vCenter. Using the Networking view, you can create and manage networking with vNetwork Distributed Switches and view networking with Standard Switches configuration.

vSphere provides two types of network architecture. Networking with vNetwork Distributed Switches manages virtual machine and host networking at the datacenter level, while networking with Standard Switches manages virtual machine and host networking at the host level.

What is a Standard Switch network?

A network with Standard Switches is a network of virtual machines running on a single physical machine that are connected logically to each other so that they can send data to and receive data from each other. A network and its associated vSwitches provide the interface between virtual machine NICs and physical network adapters.

What is the Virtual Machine Port Group/VMkernel Port/Service Console port?

There are three types of network connections:

  1. Service console port – access to ESX Server management network
  2. VMkernel port – access to VMotion, iSCSI and/or NFS/NAS networks
  3. Virtual machine port group – access to VM networks

More than one connection type can exist on a single virtual switch, or each connection type can exist on its own virtual switch. For more information, you can refer to the following pdf file:

http://download3.vmware.com/vmworld/2006/TAC9689-A.pdf

 What is the Host Profiles view?

The Host Profiles view is the management area of the vSphere Client for host profiles. This view allows administrators to create, edit, or delete host profiles.

You can attach and apply host profiles to hosts or clusters in this view or in the Hosts and Clusters view. When you perform host profile operations in the Hosts and Clusters view, you can right-click individual hosts or clusters in the inventory for some operations or use the Profile Compliance tab for cluster-level host profile operations when a cluster is selected.

PS:

More info here http://pubs.vmware.com/vsphere-50/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.vmware.vsphere.doc_50%2FGUID-553E2EBD-6D19-4873-98FD-265B3A92F1F0.html